Battle of St. Louis

1780 battle of the Anglo-Spanish War

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Battle of St. Louis
Part of the American Revolutionary War
Mural of the attack in the Missouri State Capitol
DateMay 25, 1780
St. Louis, Spanish Louisiana (present-day Missouri, US) and Cahokia, Illinois Country, Virginia (present-day Illinois, US)
Coordinates: 38°37′27.4″N 90°11′21.2″W / 38.624278°N 90.189222°W / 38.624278; -90.189222
Result Spanish victory

 Great Britain
Indian nations[1]

Commanders and leaders
Fernando de Leyba
François Vallé
Emanuel Hesse
29 regulars
291 militia[1]
750–1,500 fur traders and Indians[1]
Casualties and losses
21 killed (Spanish Claim)
68 killed (British Claim)
~100 total casualties (mostly civilians)[3]
4 killed
4 wounded[4]

The Battle of St. Louis (Spanish: Batalla de San Luis), also known as the Battle of Fort San Carlos, was an unsuccessful attack led by the British on St. Louis (a French settlement in Spanish Louisiana, founded on the West Bank of the Mississippi River after the 1763 Treaty of Paris) on May 26, 1780, during the American Revolutionary War. A former British militia commander led a force primarily of Indians and attacked the settlement. Fernando de Leyba, the Lieutenant Governor of Spanish Louisiana, led the local militia to fortify the town as best as they could and successfully withstood the attack.

On the opposite bank of the Mississippi, a second simultaneous attack on the nearby former British colonial outpost of Cahokia, occupied by Patriot Virginians, was also repulsed. The retreating Indians destroyed the crops and took captive civilians outside the protected area. The British failed to defend their side of the river and, thus, effectively ended any attempts to gain control of the Mississippi River during the war.

  1. ^ a b c Van Ravenswaay, p. 44
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference P40 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ "Spotlight: Local author's new book examines Battle of St. Louis". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 2018-07-05.
  4. ^ Van Ravenswaay, p. 45

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