Prehistoric archaeological site in Turkey and UNESCO World Heritage Site
The ruins of Göbekli Tepe
|Location||Örencik, Şanlıurfa Province, Turkey|
|Founded||pre-10th millennium BCE|
|Abandoned||8th millennium BCE|
|Periods||Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to B|
|Official name||Göbekli Tepe|
|Criteria||(i), (ii), (iv)|
|Designated||2018 (42nd session)|
Göbekli Tepe (Turkish: [ɟœbecˈli teˈpe], "Potbelly Hill") is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey approximately 12 km (7 mi) northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa. The tell (artificial mound) has a height of 15 m (50 ft) and is about 300 m (1,000 ft) in diameter. It is approximately 760 m (2,500 ft) above sea level.
The tell includes two phases of use, believed to be of a social or ritual nature by site discoverer and excavator Klaus Schmidt, dating back to the 10th–8th millennium BCE. During the first phase, belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), circles of massive 'T'-shaped stone pillars were erected—the world's oldest known megaliths.
More than 200 pillars in about 20 circles are known (as of May 2020) through geophysical surveys. Each pillar has a height of up to 6 m (20 ft) and weighs up to 10 tons. They are fitted into sockets that were hewn out of the local bedrock. In the second phase, belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB), the erected pillars are smaller and stood in rectangular rooms with floors of polished lime. The site was abandoned after the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB). Younger structures date to classical times.
The details of the structure's function remain a mystery. The excavations have been ongoing since 1996 by the German Archaeological Institute, but large parts still remain unexcavated. In 2018, the site was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- "Göbekli Tepe". Forvo Pronunciation Dictionary.
- "History in the Remaking". Newsweek. 18 February 2010.
- Klaus Schmidt (2009) "Göbekli Tepe – Eine Beschreibung der wichtigsten Befunde erstellt nach den Arbeiten der Grabungsteams der Jahre 1995–2007"; Erste Tempel – Frühe Siedlungen; 12000 Jahre Kunst und Kultur; Oldenburg; p. 188
- Curry, Andrew (November 2008). "Göbekli Tepe: The World's First Temple?". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
- Oliver Dietrich; Jens Notroff (2015). "A sanctuary, or so fair a house? In defense of an archaeology of cult at Pre-Pottery Neolithic Gobekli Tepe". In Laneri, Nicola (ed.). Defining the Sacred: Approaches to the Archaeology of Religion in the Near East. Oxbow Books. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-78297-685-1. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
- Sagona, Claudia (25 August 2015). The Archaeology of Malta. Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-1107006690. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
- Curry, Andrew (November 2008). "Gobekli Tepe: The World's First Temple?". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Göbekli Tepe". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
archaeological and UNESCO World Heritage Site
Şanlıurfa (electoral district)
Electoral district for the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
Explore nearby popular places
Find webcams around this location