Pyramid of Djoser

Archeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt

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Pyramid of Djoser
Saqqara pyramid ver 2.jpg
Djoser's step pyramid at Saqqara
Djoser
Coordinates29°52′16.56″N 31°12′59.02″E / 29.8712667°N 31.2163944°E / 29.8712667; 31.2163944Coordinates: 29°52′16.56″N 31°12′59.02″E / 29.8712667°N 31.2163944°E / 29.8712667; 31.2163944
ArchitectImhotep
Constructedc. 2670–2650 BC[1] (3rd dynasty)
TypeStep pyramid
MaterialLimestone
Height62.5 metres (205 ft; 119 cu)[2]
Base121 metres (397 ft; 231 cu) by
109 metres (358 ft; 208 cu)[2][3]
Volume330,400 cubic metres (11,667,966 cu ft)[3]
Part ofMemphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur
CriteriaCultural: i, iii, vi
Reference86-002
Inscription1979 (3rd session)
Pyramid of Djoser is located in Egypt
Pyramid of Djoser
Location within Egypt

The Pyramid of Djoser (or Djeser and Zoser), or Step Pyramid (kbhw-ntrw in Egyptian), is an archaeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt, northwest of the city of Memphis. The 6-tier, 4-sided structure is the earliest colossal stone building in Egypt.[4] It was built in the 27th century BC during the Third Dynasty for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser. The pyramid is the central feature of a vast mortuary complex in an enormous courtyard surrounded by ceremonial structures and decoration.

The pyramid went through several revisions and redevelopments of the original plan. The pyramid originally stood 62.5 metres (205 ft) tall, with a base of 109 m × 121 m (358 ft × 397 ft) and was clad in polished white limestone.[5] The step pyramid (or proto-pyramid) is considered to be the earliest large-scale cut stone construction made by man,[6][outdated] although the nearby enclosure wall "Gisr el-Mudir" is suggested by some Egyptologists to predate the complex, and the South American pyramids at Caral are contemporary.

Perspective view, plan and elevation images Djoser's Pyramid Complex taken from a 3d model

In March 2020, the pyramid was reopened for visitors after a 14-year restoration.[7]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Shaw 480 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ a b Verner 2001d, p. 461.
  3. ^ a b Lehner 2008, p. 17.
  4. ^ Hawkes, Jacquetta (1974). Atlas of Ancient Archaeology. McGraw-Hill Book Company. p. 149. ISBN 0-07-027293-X.
  5. ^ Verner 2001d, pp. 108–109 & 461.
  6. ^ Lehner, Mark (1997). The Complete Pyramids. New York: Thames and Hudson. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-500-05084-2.
  7. ^ "Egypt reopens Djoser pyramid, country's oldest, after 14-year restoration". France24. 6 March 2020.

Nearby Places

  • Memphis, Egypt

    Ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, Egypt

  • Saqqara

    Village in Giza Governorate, Egypt

  • Pyramid of Djoser
  • Dahshur

    Village in Giza Governorate, Egypt

  • Red Pyramid

    Smooth-sided pyramid constructed by Pharaoh Sneferu

  • Bent Pyramid
  • Abu Gorab
  • Maya (treasurer)
  • Abusir

    Village in Giza Governorate, Egypt

  • Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum

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