Holy Roman Empire

Multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe (800 - 1806)

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Holy Roman Empire

Sacrum Imperium Romanum  (Latin)
Heiliges Römisches Reich  (German)
The Holy Roman Empire in 1190
The Holy Roman Empire in 1190
The change of territory of the Holy Roman Empire superimposed on present-day state borders
The change of territory of the Holy Roman Empire superimposed on present-day state borders
CapitalNo permanent single/fixed capital[1]
Vienna (Aulic Council (Reichshofrat) from 1497)
Regensburg (Reichstag (Imperial Diet) from 1594, perpetual from 1663)[b]
Wetzlar (Reichskammergericht from 1689)
For other imperial administrative centres, see below.
47°20′N 8°16′E / 47.333°N 8.267°E / 47.333; 8.267Coordinates: 47°20′N 8°16′E / 47.333°N 8.267°E / 47.333; 8.267
Common languagesGerman, Medieval Latin (administrative/liturgical/ceremonial)
Catholicism (800–1806)
Lutheranism (1555–1806)
Calvinism (Reformed) (1648–1806)

see details
GovernmentConfederal[4] elective monarchy
• 800–814
• 962–973
Otto I
• 1792–1806
Francis II
LegislatureImperial Diet
Historical eraMiddle Ages
Early modern period
• Charlemagne is crowned Emperor of the Romans[a]
25 December 800
2 February 962
• Conrad II assumes crown of Burgundy (Arelat)
2 February 1033
25 September 1555
24 October 1648
2 December 1805
6 August 1806
• 1700[5]
• 1800[5]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
East Francia
Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Prussia
Austrian Empire
Confederation of the Rhine

The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added. However, while by the 15th century the Empire was still in theory composed of three major blocks – Italy, Germany, and Burgundy – in practice only the Kingdom of Germany remained, with the Burgundian territories lost to France and the Italian territories, ignored in the Imperial Reform, mostly either ruled directly by the Habsburg emperors or subject to competing foreign influence.[7][8][9] The external borders of the Empire did not change noticeably from the Peace of Westphalia – which acknowledged the exclusion of Switzerland and the Northern Netherlands, and the French protectorate over Alsace – to the dissolution of the Empire. By then, it largely contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia. At the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, most of the Holy Roman Empire was included in the German Confederation.

On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476. The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I, King of Germany, was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne[10] and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.[11][12][13] Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire,[14][15] while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning.[16][17] Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role.[8][14]

The exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, before which the empire was referred to variously as universum regnum ("the whole kingdom", as opposed to the regional kingdoms), imperium christianum ("Christian empire"), or Romanum imperium ("Roman empire"),[18] but the Emperor's legitimacy always rested on the concept of translatio imperii,[d] that he held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome.[8] The dynastic office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective through the mostly German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire; they would elect one of their peers as "King of the Romans" to be crowned emperor by the Pope, although the tradition of papal coronations was discontinued in the 16th century.

The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, principalities, duchies, counties, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains.[9][19] The power of the emperor was limited, and while the various princes, lords, bishops, and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they also possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Emperor Napoleon I the month before.
Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ "Seven German cities you never knew were once capitals". The Local. 18 August 2016. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  2. ^ Karl Härter, "The Permanent Imperial Diet in European Context, 1663–1806", in The Holy Roman Empire, 1495–1806, Edited by R.J.W. Evans, Michael Schaich, and Peter H. Wilson, Oxford University Press, US, 2011, ISBN 978-0-19-960297-1, pp. 122–23, 132.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference langues was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Heinz H. F. Eulau (1941). "Theories of Federalism under the Holy Roman Empire". The American Political Science Review. 35 (4): 643–664. doi:10.2307/1948073. JSTOR 1948073.
  5. ^ a b Wilson 2016, p. 496.
  6. ^ Holy Roman Empire, Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  7. ^ (Viscount), James Bryce Bryce (1899). The Holy Roman Empire. p. 183.
  8. ^ a b c Whaley, Joachim (2012). Germany and the Holy Roman Empire: Volume I: Maximilian I to the Peace of Westphalia, 1493–1648. pp. 17–21. ISBN 9780198731016.
  9. ^ a b Johnson, Lonnie (31 October 1996). Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends. p. 23. ISBN 9780198026075.
  10. ^ Norman F. Cantor (1993), Civilization of the Middle Ages, pp. 212–215
  11. ^ Bamber Gascoigne. "History of the Holy Roman Empire". HistoryWorld.
  12. ^ Norman Davies, A History of Europe (Oxford, 1996), pp. 316–317.
  13. ^ While Charlemagne and his successors assumed variations of the title emperor, none termed themselves Roman emperor until Otto II in 983. Holy Roman Empire, Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  14. ^ a b (Viscount), James Bryce Bryce (1899). The Holy Roman Empire. pp. 2–3.
  15. ^ Heer, Friedrich (1967). The Holy Roman Empire. New York: Frederick A. Praeger. pp. 1–8. ISBN 978-0-297-17672-5.
  16. ^ Davies, pp. 317, 1246.
  17. ^ Kleinhenz, Christopher (2 August 2004). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. p. 810. ISBN 9781135948801. Otto can be considered the first ruler of the Holy Roman empire, though that term was not used until the twelfth century.
  18. ^ Ildar H. Garipzanov, The Symbolic Language of Authority in the Carolingian World (c.751–877) (Leiden: Brill, 2008).
  19. ^ The Holy Roman Empire, Heraldica.org.

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