Parthenon World Heritage Site

Former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece

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Parthenon
Παρθενώνας
The Parthenon in Athens.jpg
The Parthenon
General information
TypeTemple
Architectural styleClassical
LocationAthens, Greece
Construction started447 BC[1][2]
Completed432 BC[1][2]
DestroyedPartially on 26 September 1687
Height13.72 m (45.0 ft)[3]
Dimensions
Other dimensionsCella: 29.8 by 19.2 m (98 by 63 ft)
Technical details
Size69.5 by 30.9 m (228 by 101 ft)
Design and construction
ArchitectIktinos, Callicrates
Other designersPhidias (sculptor)
Reconstruction of the Acropolis and Areopagus in Athens, Leo von Klenze, 1846

The Parthenon (/ˈpɑːθəˌnɒn, -nən/; Ancient Greek: Παρθενών; Greek: Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas, [parθeˈnonas]) is a former temple[4][5] on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the peak of its power. It was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the zenith of the Doric order.[by whom?] Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of ancient Greece, Athenian democracy and Western civilization,[6] and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. To the Athenians who built it, the Parthenon and other Periclean monuments of the Acropolis were seen fundamentally as a celebration of Hellenic victory over the Persian invaders and as a thanksgiving to the gods for that victory.[7]

The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon served a practical purpose as the city treasury.[8][9] For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the final decade of the 6th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

After the Ottoman conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment during a siege of the Acropolis. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. From 1800 to 1803,[10] Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles, with the alleged permission of the Turks of the Ottoman Empire.[11]

Since 1975, numerous large-scale restoration projects have been undertaken; the latest is expected to finish in 2020.[12]

  1. ^ a b Parthenon. Academic.reed.edu. Retrieved on 4 September 2013.
  2. ^ a b The Parthenon. Ancientgreece.com. Retrieved on 4 September 2013.
  3. ^ Penprase, Bryan E. (2010). The Power of Stars: How Celestial Observations Have Shaped Civilization. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-4419-6803-6. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  4. ^ Barletta, Barbara A. (2005). "The Architecture and Architects of the Classical Parthenon". In Jenifer Neils (ed.). The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-521-82093-6. The Parthenon (Plate 1, Fig. 17) is probably the most celebrated of all Greek temples.
  5. ^ Hambidge, Jay; Yale University. Rutherford Trowbridge Memorial Publication Fund (1924). The Parthenon and other Greek temples: their dynamic symmetry. Yale university press.
  6. ^ Beard, Mary (2010). The Parthenon. Profile Books. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-84765-063-4.
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Robertson, Miriam (1981). A Shorter History of Greek Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-521-28084-6.
  9. ^ Davison, Claire Cullen; Lundgreen, Birte (2009). Pheidias:The Sculptures and Ancient Sources. 105. London: Institute of Classical Studies, University of London. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-905670-21-5. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  10. ^ "Lord Elgin and the Parthenon Sculptures". British Museum. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013.
  11. ^ "How the Parthenon Lost Its Marbles". History Magazine. 28 March 2017.
  12. ^ "The Acropolis Restoration Project's next stage until 2020". TornosNews.GR.

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